Man’s festival jacket (?)
Asa (homespun)
Katazome (stenciling), pigments

This is probably a festival jacket, and was probably made in multiples to be worn by a particular group of people as they paraded in the festival. The character repeated in positive and negative is the first character in Edo, the old name of Tokyo, and means inlet or bay.  (The three dots on the left are indicative of water-themed words.)

This jacket is unlined, so it is possible to compare the face and reverse of the material. In the photo below, the face has been dyed, but the reverse has not.